BILL! BILL! BILL! BILL!
Sapey forest, Jarrier, Maurienne valley, Savoie, Rhône-Alpes, France
Spinel in Marble matrix.
Luc Yen, Vietnam
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Psych2go features various psychological findings and myths. In the future, psych2go attempts to include sources to posts for the for the purpose of generating discussions and commentaries. This will give readers a chance to critically examine psychology.
So I’ve heard somebody wanted to see a gif of that moment when Brian Cox was ran over by Stephen Hawking. Here it is, I hope it loads.
This gif changed my life
Check out to try the software used to make this image.
New species of electrons can lead to better computing
In a research paper published this week in Science, the collaboration led by MIT’s theory professor Leonid Levitov and Manchester’s Nobel laureate Sir Andre Geim report a material in which electrons move at a controllable angle to applied fields, similar to sailboats driven diagonally to the wind.
The material is graphene – one atom-thick chicken wire made from carbon – but with a difference. It is transformed to a new so-called superlattice state by placing it on top of boron nitride, also known as `white graphite’, and then aligning the crystal lattices of the two materials. In contrast to metallic graphene, a graphene superlattice behaves as a semiconductor.
In original graphene, charge carriers behave like massless neutrinos moving at the speed of light and having the electron charge. Although an excellent conductor, graphene does not allow for easy switching on and off of current, which is at the heart of what a transistor does.
Electrons in graphene superlattices are different and behave as neutrinos that acquired a notable mass. This results in a new, relativistic behaviour so that electrons can now skew at large angles to applied fields. The effect is huge, as found in the Manchester-MIT experiments.
The reported relativistic effect has no known analogue in particle physics and extends our understanding of how the universe works.
Beyond the discovery, the observed phenomenon may also help enhance the performance of graphene electronics, making it a worthy companion to silicon.
The research suggests that transistors made from graphene superlattices should consume less energy than conventional semiconductor transistors because charge carriers drift perpendicular to the electric field, which results in little energy dissipation.
The Manchester-MIT researchers demonstrate the first such transistor, which opens a venue for less power hungry computers.
Professor Geim comments ‘It is quite a fascinating effect, and it hits a very soft spot in our understanding of complex, so-called topological materials. It is extremely rare to come across with a phenomenon that bridges materials science, particle physics, relativity and topology.’
Professor Levitov adds ‘It is widely believed than unconventional approaches to information processing are key for the future of IT hardware. This belief has been the driving force behind a number of important recent developments, in particular the development of spintronics. The demonstrated transistor highlights the promise of graphene-based systems for alternative ways of information processing
What is the colour of a quark? Is it the same thing as its flavour?
Colour is really just something physicists came up with to describe and catergorise quarks.
Quarks are actually smaller than the wavelength of visible light so they do not have a colour in the traditional sense.
The flavours of quark are Up, Down, Strange, Charm, Top, and Bottom (or Beauty I think originally) and these names describe differences in charge and mass (Top being the heaviest, Up the lightest) and that’s all very well as far as classification goes.
But we needed something that would take into account the peculiar behaviour of quarks. Namely, that they only exist in certain combinations. Groups of three, or pairs of quark and antiquark. So the concept of colour was borrowed because you have red, green, and blue (RGB) combining to make white light. An anology we can see in practice easily.
And also the idea of complementary colours. Pairs of colour that will also form white when combined. The quark and its antiquark have complementary colour. Green and anti-green (here, magenta), etc.
So quarks can only exist together in a state of colour neutrality - whiteness. Or in the case of paints, blackness. And colour is just a handy way of describing that in an intuitive way to budding physicists.
Galois’ Theorem on Finite Fields via @theoremoftheday @republicofmathA ﬁnite ﬁeld with n elements exists if and only if n = pk for some prime p and some non-negative integer k. Moreover this ﬁeld is unique up to isomorphism.
What's quark gluon plasma, I don't understand, I can understand most scientific stuff so you can use science words, but I'm just 13 and not a genius so go a little easy, a simplified explanation would be great 🙌
OK. Quark soup. Let’s go!
Just so we’re talking the same language;
Quark: Fundamental constituent of matter - come together via the strong nuclear force to make hadrons (particles). They cannot be looked at directly because they are colour-confined, i.e. must exist in pairs or threes according to certain rules.
Gluon: acts as exchange particle for the strong nuclear force between quarks.
Quark soup is a phase is hypothesized to exist at extremely high temperature, density, or both. In this state the quarks and gluons are “free”. That is they can move around more than in their usual state. They are not confined either by colour or by the dimensions of a hadron while in this state. Basically the rigid order has broken down. They are soupy.
The analogy to plasma is that in plasma electronic charge is screened due to the presence of other mobile charges. In the same way you can’t see your screen cos your cat is in the way.
In quark-gluon plasma the colour charge is screened by other mobile colour charges. However, the plasma must preserve colour-neutrality overall so the volume of the plasma will be like a nucleus and have integer electric charge.
It is thought that the universe was in a quark soup state milliseconds after the big bang.
With autumn on the horizon, this graphic looks at the chemicals behind the myriad colours of autumn leaves; bigger version & download here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-sn
Stargazers could be in for a rare display Sept. 12 as an Earth-directed solar flare ignites the northern lights, also known as the aurora borealis, in the United States. As a result of the flare’s direction and strength, the dazzling light display could reach as far south as Maryland in the east and down to Kansas farther west.